Advising

Fungicides are pesticides used to destroy or avoid the development of fungus.

 

Fungicides classification according to their origin:

 

Inorganic fungicides: They are the oldest compounds since their first use in late XIX Century. Although their use has decreased because of the use of organic products, they have not disappeared in all their applications yet.

We can find:
• Sulfuric compounds
• Cupric compounds

 

Organic fungicides: They began to be developed in 1934, being more effective and less toxic than the inorganic ones. They allowed solving problems that classic fungicides solved in a partial way. Some of the families that belong to this group are: Carbamates, Dicarboximides, copper organic Compounds, Benzimidazols, Triazols, Estrobilurines, etc.).

There is no doubt that most wheat seeds contain pathogens that must be controlled and that many times are not detected during routine determinations of germinative power. Therefore, the treatment with phytotherapics allows us to eliminate the organisms that affect our seed germination and avoid the introduction of new pathogens in the soil.

 

In second place, the soil where we implant the seeds is not sterile, on the contrary it has plenty of pathogens highly adapted to the environment where they live and that attack the wheat seeds during the period that includes germination up to emergence of cultivation. This attack is even more important when there are agro climatic conditions that favor pathogens such as humid, cold and weed covered soils that make the germination and emergence periods more prolonged and thus the possibilities of seed attack increase considerable.

 

Consequently, if to the pathogens present in the seed we add those which can attack it from the soil, we obtain an important number of detrimental organisms that we must control to obtain an adequate germination of seeds and a correct implantation of buds to achieve an agronomically optimal stand of plants.

 

Knowing then clearly the technical reasons that make seed treatment necessary, a new question arises immediately: which is the fungicide we must use in order to achieve an effective control of the pathogenic populations? And to answer it first it is important to emphasize that the election must be directed towards double seed treatment products that include in its formulation contact and systemic fungicides to achieve a higher and better control of seed and soil pathogens.

 

The combination of active principles as the Thiram (contact fungicide) and Tebuconazole (systemic fungicide) allows to obtain excellent control over the most important pathogens that attack wheat cultivation such as Ustilago nuda f sf tritici, Tilletia caries and Fusarium graminearum.

Finally, we can answer affirmatively to our first question about the necessity of wheat seed treatment, since the treatment becomes absolutely necessary if we want to control the seed pathogens and the soil, consequently the seed treatment use allows us to achieve optimal plant stands which are essential to obtain an excellent cultivation of wheat, maize and others.

It is a product elaborated with microorganisms that are applied to the soil or seed with bacterium so that once implanted and during the process of germination it generates buds bacterium symbiosis

 

INOCULATION:

 

It is the process by which a pathogen and a host make contact.

 

The agricultural production based in leguminous plants is fundamental for human feeding, especially if it is in balance with the environment, for that reason natural interaction of these plants with the bacterium of the soil at the root level is ecologically important as a measure to avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers that deteriorate the soil and contaminate the environment.

 

The objective of this revision is to briefly analyze part of the information on the potential of the bacterium of the RHIZOBIUM genre to fix nitrogen (N2 to symbiosis with leguminous plants in order to be used in the sustainable production of this plant).

 

The biological fixation of nitrogen is only observed when the bacterium recognizes its host; it infects him through the root hair so that in the matrix of cortical cells it induces meiosis and accelerated mitosis that give rise to a hypertrophied tissue: the nodule of the radical system of the leguminous plant, by then RHIZOBIUM, has lost its cellular wall and has become a bactericide whereas by means of the enzyme called nitrogenous it fixes nitrogen and turns it into ammonium that later transfers to vegetal ribosome for vegetal protein synthesis, simultaneously through photosynthesis the leguminous plant reduces CO2 in carbohydrates that will serve as a source of carbon and energy for RHIZOBIUM, thus increasing the reserve of glucose it keeps it active in the nodule until covering the nitrogen necessary for the plant.

 

Therefore the use of inoculants with RHIZOBIUM that reduces the application of chemical fertilizers increases the content of nitrogen in the vegetal cultivation and its dry weight and maintains the yield in the leguminous plants, so consequently it lowers the production cost and the contamination of water-bearing mantles and soils. It is vital for a sustainable agriculture.

The inoculants are elaborated with stocks of high specificity and verified capacity of symbiotic fixation of nitrogen. The stocks selection for each land-climatic zone is specially studied in order to determine what kind of inoculants must be used.

 

Due to the high content of protein in the soybean, around 176,368 lb of air nitrogen is necessary for every ton of grain produced. For 6613,8 lb/ha yields it is needed 529,104 lb/ha of nitrogen. The most economical and efficient way to achieve such requirement is to maximize the biological fixation of air nitrogen. That is way it is so important to achieve the best inoculation so that the plant can express its maximum yield potential.

 

Inoculants are stored in chambers of controlled temperature to maintain their properties.

 

In the case of our machines at the moment of their application they must not be exposed to the sun nor thus the seeds being treated.

 

Especially it is necessary to have permanent control of the machine so that it keeps the inoculant that is being applied in continuous agitation assuring a homogeneous distribution of RHIZOBIUM in the liquid mass. Otherwise, there will be precipitation and a later accumulation of RHIZOBIUM at the bottom of the recipient impoverishing this way the inoculant that is being applied.

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